This startling collection gives voice to Canadian women's experiences and accomplishments during the twentieth century.
2002 CANADIAN ASSOCIATION OF FOUNDATIONS IN EDUCATION BOOK AWARD Framing Our Past is about women's lived experience. Drawing from diaries, oral history, letters, organizational records, paintings, quilts, dressmaking patterns, milliners' records, and posters, the contributors offer fresh interpretations of this historical material and unique insights into the lives of individual Canadian women who expanded the boundaries of traditional roles. Lavishly illustrated, Framing Our Past looks at women and their social rituals with other women, organized sporting clubs, philanthropic, spiritual and aesthetic activities, study and reading groups. The authors explore women's roles as nurturers and keepers of the hearth and in family management, child care, and health care. They highlight women's work in areas as diverse as domestic labour, nursing, dressmaking, broadcasting, and banking as well as women's contributions to education and their instrumental political role in consumer activism, social work, and peace movements.
532 Pages, 10 x 10
200 b&w photographs
Formats: Paperback, Cloth, eBook
Sharon Anne Cook is professor, education, University of Ottawa.
Lorna R. McLean is assistant professor, education, University of Ottawa.
Kate O'Rourke is an archivist, Special Collections, Archives of Ontario.
Framing Our Past Edited by Sharon Anne Cook, Lorna McLean, and Kate O'Rourke Table of Contents Foreword Chad Gaffield xvii Preface Alison Prentice xix Acknowledgments xxi Introduction Sharon Anne Cook, Lorna R. McLean, and Kate O'Rourke xxiii Suggestions on How to Use This Book xxix PART ONE LIVING WOMEN'S LIVES 1 Introduction Veronica Strong-Boag 3 Sidebar: Fanny Bobbie Rosenfeld 3 Sidebar: Lucy Maud Montgomery 5 2 "Club": Laundering Clothing in Newfoundland Kathleen Wilker 7 3 Vignette: Stirring the Pot* 9 4 Winnipeg Women Getting Together: Study Groups and Reading Clubs, 1900-1940 Jody Baltessen and Shelagh J. Squire 10 5 Vignette: Life in the Town of Nelson, British Columbia Brenda Hornby 15 6 "Doing All the Rest": Church Women of the Ladies' Aid Society Marilyn F?rdig Whiteley 18 7 Preserving Habits: Memory within Communities of English Canadian Women Religious Elizabeth Smyth 22 *Unless otherwise indicated, vignettes are authored by the editors. 8 Mildred Armstrong and Missionary Culture Marjorie Levan 27 9 Vignette: Women's Spiritual Lives 33 10 E. Pauline Johnson: Mohawk-English Writer and Performer Veronica Strong-Boag 35 Sidebar: Emma Albani 36 11 Vignette: Two Perspectives on Urban Living Mairuth Sarsfield Mairuth Hodge Sarsfield 39 Sidebar: Margaret Marshall Saunders 39 Gabrielle Roy Pierrette Roily 40 12 Ada Gladys Killins: Sacrificing for Art's Sake Sharon Anne Cook 41 13 Vignette: The Road Less Taken -The Single Woman as Artist The Unmarried Woman Artist: Emily Carr Sonia Halpern 45 Isabel and Helen Stadelbauer: Art Teachers in Calgary Helen Diemert 46 14 A Sense of Place in Alberta: The Art and Life of Annora Brown Kirstin Evenden 48 15 Vignette: Yukon Women Pioneers Edith Josie: "These Are the News" Charlene Porsild 52 Martha Louise Black 53 16 Alice Peck, May Phillips, and the Canadian Handicrafts Guild Ellen Easton McLeod 54 17 Vignette: Life in a Native Community 57 18 Helen Kalvak: Pioneering Inuit Print-maker Jessica Tomic-Bagshaw 60 19 Virginia J. Watt: Champion of Inuit Arts and Crafts Ellen Easton McLeod 62 20 A Century of Artistic Experience and Innovation Anne Newlands 65 PART TWO FAMILY AND THE HOME 21 Introduction Cynthia R. Comacchio 75 22 Zoe Laurier, Prime Minister's Wife: Family Ideals at the Turn of the Century Catherine Vye 82 23 "A Hardier Stock of Womankind": Alice Barrett Parke in British Columbia Jo Eraser Jones 86 24 Life on the Frontier: Remembering the Coal Mining Camp at Cadomin, 1929-1934 Edith Wheeler 96 25 Women and Domestic Technology: Household Drudgery, "Democratized Consumption;' and Patriarchy Dianne Dodd 101 26 Defining the Lives of Rural Women: Laura Rose on "The Womanly Sphere of Woman" Margaret Kechnie 111 27 "Such Outrageous Discrimination": Farm Women and Their Family Grievances in Early Twentieth-Century Ontario Monda Halpern 116 28 Between the Rock and a Hard Place: Single Mothers in St John's, Newfoundland, during the Second World War Ruth Haywood 124 29 Prudence Heward: Painting at Home Pepita Ferrari 129 30 Mothering the Dionne Quintuplets: Women's Stories Katherine Arnup 134 31 Saving Mothers and Babies: Motherhood, Medicine, and the Modern State, 1900-1945 Cynthia R. Comacchio 139 PART THREE TEACHING AND LEARNING 32 Introduction Nicole Neatby 149 33 Shaping Canada's Women: Canadian Girls in Training versus Girl Guides Patricia Dirks 155 34 The Experience of Women Students at Four Universities, 1895-1930 Alyson E. King 160 Sidebar: Grace Annie Lockhart 160 35 Margaret Addison: Dean of Residence and Dean of Women at Victoria University, 1903-1931 Jean O'Grady l66 36 The "Feminization" of High Schools: The Problem of Women Secondary School Teachers in Ontario Susan Gelman 170 37 Writing for Whom? Isabel Murphy Skelton and Canadian History in the Early Twentieth Century Terry Crowley 174 38 The Rideau Street Convent School: French-Language Private Schooling in Ontario Isabelle Bourgeois 178 39 "The School on Fardy's Cross": Shamrock School Remembered Pat Trites 184 40 Vignette: Women, Team Sport, and Physical Education Women and Physical Education Ellen O'Reilly 189 Women and Team Sport Veronica Strong-Boag 192 Montreal Sportswomen and the Penguin Ski Club Andrea Winlo 193 41 From Elegance and Expression to Sweat and Strength: Physical Education at the Margaret Eaton School Anna H. Lathrop 194 PART FOUR WOMEN'S ACTIVISM AND THE STATE 42 Introduction Joan Sangster 201 Sidebar: Adelaide Hunter Hoodless 201 Sidebar: Imperial Order Daughters of the Empire 208 43 History and Human Agency: The Case of Agnes Macphail, Canada's First Woman Member of Parliament Terry Crowley 212 44 The Persons Case, 1929: A Legal Definition of Women as Persons Anne White 216 45 Women, the Settlement Movement, and State Formation in the Early Twentieth Century Cathy James 222 46 The Historical Record and Adolescent Girls in Montreal's Red-Light District Tamara Myers 228 47 Charlotte Whitton: Pioneering Social Worker and Public Policy Activist Judith Roberts-Moore 232 48 Consuming Issues: Women in the Left, Political Protest, and the Organization of Homemakers, 1920-1960 Joan Sangster 240 49 Making Ourselves Heard: "Voice of Women" and the Peace Movement in the Early Sixties Candace Loewen 248 50 The Royal Commission on the Status of Women in Canada, 1967-1970: Liberal Feminism and Its Radical Implications Kimberly Speers 252 Sidebar: Lady Ishbel Aberdeen 252 51 Florence Bird Judi Cumming 257 52 Women, Peace Activism, and the Environment: Rosalie Bertell and the Development of a Feminist Agenda, 1970?s-1990?s Judi Cumming 259 53 State Control of Women's Immigration: The Passage to Canada of South Asian Women Helen Ralston 263 54 Making Space: Women Building Culture Janice Hladki and Ann Holmes 267 55 Feminist Theatre in Toronto: A Look at the Nightwood Theatre Corinne Rusch-Drutz 271 PART FIVE HEALTH CARE AND SCIENCE 56 Introduction Wendy Mitchinson 277 57 The Ladies Committee of the Home for Incurable Children Magda Zakanyi 284 58 Margaret Scott: "The Angel of Poverty Row" Tamara Miller 287 59 "Hardly Feminine Work!" Violet Wilson and the Canadian Voluntary Aid Detachment Nurses of the First World War Linda I. Quiney 289 Sidebar: Major Margaret C. Macdonald 291 60 The Emergence of Physiotherapy as a New Profession for Canadian Women, 1914-1918 Ruby Heap 295 61 Ethel Currant: Portrait of a Grenfell Nurse Jill Perry 300 62 Vera Peters: Medical Innovator J. Catton and P; Catton 305 63 Norah Toole: Scientist and Social Activist Marianne Gosztonyi Ainley 308 64 Alice V. Payne, Mining Geologist: A Lifetime of "Small and Difficult Things" E. Tina Crossfield 311 65 Vignette: A Case Study of an Oral History Project Shirley Peruniak: Naturalist, Historian, Quetico Provincial Park Interpreter Wilma MacDonald 314 PART SIX EARNING THEIR BREAD 66 Introduction A.B. McCullough 319 Sidebar: Depression Years 325 Sidebar: Pay Equity 326 67 Vignette: An Oral History Case Study A Barnardo Girl Becomes a Servant at Glanmore Christine Zaporzan 333 68 Bringing "Domestics" to Canada: A Study of Immigration Propaganda Ellen Scheinberg 336 69 Women in the Newfoundland Fishery Miriam Wright 343 70 Vignette: Madeleine Constant, Leader in the Pasta Industry Lise Bremault 347 71 Creative Ability and Business Sense: The Millinery Trade in Ontario Christina Bates 348 72 Our Mothers' Patterns: Sewing and Dressmaking in the Japanese-Canadian Community Susan Michi Sirovyak 359 73 Federica and Angelina: Postwar Italian-Canadian Couturiers in Toronto Alexandra Palmer 366 74 Fabrications: Clothing, Generations, and Stitching Together the History We Live Kathryn Church 372 75 The Telephone Operator: From "Information Central" to Endangered Species Caroline Martel (translated by Rosemary Covert) 376 76 Ann Meekitjuk Hanson: Inuit Broadcaster, Interpreter, and Community Worker Christine Lalonde 378 77 Cultural Nationalism and Maternal Feminism: Madge Macbeth as Writer, Broadcaster, and Literary Figure Peggy Kelly 381 78 "The Day of the Strong-Minded Frump Has Passed": Women Journalists and News of Feminism Barbara M. Freeman 385 Sidebar: Jean McKishnie Blewett 385 79 Women in Banking: A Case Study of Scotiabank Jane Nokes and Lisa Singer 392 80 Vignette: The Keroacks, a Family of Business Women Lise Bremault 395 81 "The Queen of the Hurricanes": Elsie Gregory MacGill, Aeronautical Engineer and Women's Advocate Pamela Wakewich 396 82 The Women's Royal Canadian Naval Service during the Second World War: An Exploration of Their Archival Legacy Donna Porter 402 83 Vignette: "Not Just 'Rosie the Riveter. .."' 407 84 Women's Wartime Work and Identities: Women Workers at Canadian Car and Foundry Co. Limited, Fort William, Ontario, 1938-1945 Pamela Wakewich, Helen Smith, and Jeanette Lynes 409 85 Foreign-Aid Worker and Humanitarian Lotta Hitschmanova and the Unitarian Service Committee of Canada Grace Hyam 417 Appendix One: Archival Sources Identified by Essay/Vignette 423 Appendix Two: Cross-Referenced Essay Index 427 Notes 431 Selected Readings 485 Contributors 489
Winner CAFE Book Award Canadian Association of Foundations of Education Book Award (2002)