Canadas Residential Schools The History Part 1 Origins to 1939 places Canadas residential school system in the historical context of European campaigns to colonize and convert Indigenous people throughout the world. In post-Confederation Canada the government adopted what amounted to a policy of cultural genocide suppressing spiritual practices disrupting traditional economies and imposing new forms of government. Residential schooling quickly became a central element in this policy. The destructive intent of the schools was compounded by chronic under- funding and ongoing conict between the federal government and the church missionary societies that had been given responsibility for their day-to-day operation. A failure of leadership and resources meant that the schools failed to control the tuberculosis crisis that gripped the schools for much of this period. The History Part 2 1939 to 2000 carries the story of the residential school system from the end of the Great Depression to the closing of the last re- maining schools in the late 1990s. It demonstrates that the underfunding and unsafe living conditions that characterized the early history of the schools continued into an era of unprecedented growth and prosperity for most Canadians. A miserly funding formula meant that into the late 1950s school meals fell short of the Canada Food Rules. Overcrowding poor sanitation and a failure to adhere to re safety rules were common problems through- out this period. While government ofcials had come to view the schools as costly and in- efcient the churches were reluctant to countenance their closure. It was not until the late 1960s that the federal government nally wrested control of the system away from the churches. Government plans to turn First Nations education over to the provinces met with opposition from Aboriginal organi- zations that were seeking Indian Control of Indian Education. Following parent-led occupation of a school in Alberta many of the remaining schools came under Aboriginal administration. 4 I N D I G E N O U S S T U D I E S C A N A D I A N H I S T O R Y S P E C I F I C AT I O N S PA R T 1 McGill-Queens Native and Northern Series January 2016 978-0-7735-4650-9 39.95A 39.95A 27.99 paper 978-0-7735-4649-3 150.00S 150.00S 104.00 cloth 6.75 x 9.75 1024pp 34 tables 2 graphs 102 photos Ebook available also available in French S P E C I F I C AT I O N S PA R T 2 McGill-Queens Native and Northern Series January 2016 978-0-7735-4652-3 39.95A 39.95A 27.99 paper 978-0-7735-4651-6 150.00S 150.00S 104.00 cloth 6.75 x 9.75 864pp 32 tables 6 graphs 76 photos Ebook available also available in French Canadas Residential Schools The History Part 1 Origins to 1939 Volume 1 Canadas Residential Schools The History Part 2 1939 to 2000 Volume 1 The Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada Between 1867 and 2000 the Canadian government sent over 150000 Aboriginal children to residential schools across the coun- try. Government ofcials and missionaries agreed that in order to civilize and Christianize Aboriginal children it was necessary to separate them from their parents and their home communities. For children life in these schools was lonely and alien. Disci- pline was harsh and daily life was highly regimented. Aboriginal languages and cultures were denigrated and suppressed. Education and technical training too often gave way to the drudgery of doing the chores necessary to make the schools self-sustaining. Child neg- lect was institutionalized and the lack of supervision created situa- tions where students were prey to sexual and physical abusers. Legal action by the schools former students led to the creation of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada in 2008. The product of over six years of research the Commissions nal report outlines the history and legacy of the schools and charts a pathway towards reconciliation.