What did it mean to be a spectator during the lifetime of Shakespeare or of Aphra Behn? In Early Modern Spectatorship contributors use the idea of spectatorship to reinterpret canonical early modern texts and bring visibility to relatively unknown works. While many early modern spectacles were designed to influence those who watched, the very presence of spectators and their behaviour could alter the conduct and the meaning of the event itself. In the case of public executions, for example, audiences could both observe and be observed by the executioner and the condemned. Drawing on work in the digital humanities and theories of cultural spectacle, these essays discuss subjects as various as the death of Desdemona in Othello, John Donne’s religious orientation, Ned Ward’s de- scriptions of London, and Louis Laguerre’s murals painted for the residences of English aristocrats. A lucid exploration of subtle questions, Early Modern Spectatorship identifies, imagines, and describes the spectator’s experience in early modern culture. Ronald Huebert is professor emeritus in the Department of English at Dalhousie University and Inglis Professor at the University of King’s College. David McNeil is a former associate professor in the Department of English at Dalhousie University. The late Victorian period brought a radical change in cultural attitudes to- ward middle-class women and work. Anxiety over the growing disproportion between women and men in the population, combined with an awakening de- sire among young women for personal and financial freedom, led progressive thinkers to advocate for increased employment opportunities. The major stumbling block was the persistent conviction that middle-class women – “ladies” – could not work without relinquishing their social status. Through media reports, public lectures, and fictional portrayals of working women, From Spinster to Career Woman traces advocates’ efforts to alter cultural perceptions of women, work, class, and the ideals of womanhood. Focusing on the archetypal figures of the hospital nurse and the typewriter, Arlene Young analyzes the strategies used to transform a job perceived as menial into a respected profession and to represent office work as progressive employment for educated women. This book goes beyond a standard exami- nation of historical, social, and political realities, delving into the intense human elements of a cultural shift and the hopes and fears of young women seeking independence. Providing new insights into the Victorian period, From Spinster to Career Woman captures the voices of ordinary women caught up in the frustrations and excitements of a new era. Arlene Young is professor emeritus at the University of Manitoba. 4 2 M Q U P S P R I N G 2 0 1 9 S P E C I F I C AT I O N S May 2019 -5,7a755pl7ln557l 4p-i-l£ bAU1 4p-i-l£ Dc1 kpsiaa 6o602 -5,7a755pl7ln5n7, 4Ssaiaac bAU1 4Ssaiaac Dc1 k-niaa $.9ru n B - hh,66 hh 6u9r93 0g99T omot.oN.0 S P E C I F I C AT I O N S May 2019 -5,7a755pl7l5a57- 4s-i-lv bAU1 4s-i-lv Dc1 kssi-- 6o602 -5,7a755pl7l5an7s 4SSaiaac bAU1 4SSaiaac Dc1 k,,iaa $.9ru n B - sh,66 , 6u9r93 0g99T omot.oN.0 From Spinster to Career Woman Middle-Class Women and Work in Victorian England arlene young Challenging preconceived notions about femininity, respectability, paid employment, and middle-class ladies in Victorian England. B R I T I S H H I S T O R Y • W O M E N ’ S S T U D I E S E N G L I S H L I T E R AT U R E • B R I T I S H H I S T O R Y Early Modern Spectatorship Interpreting English Culture, 1500–1780 edited by ronald huebert and david mcneil Essays that converge on the idea of spectatorship in the theatre, in criminal punishment, in religious worship, in urban perambulation, and even where least expected.