Since 1824, Bahians have marked independence with a popular festival that contrasts sharply with the official commemoration of Brazil’s independence on 7 September. The Dois de Julho (2 July) festival celebrates the day the Portuguese troops were expelled from Salvador in 1823, the culmination of a year-long war that gave independence a radical meaning in Bahia. Bahia’s Independence traces the history of the Dois de Julho festival in Salvador, the Brazilian state’s capital, from 1824 to 1900. Hendrik Kraay discusses how the festival draws on elements of saints’ processions, carnivals, and civic ritual in the use of such distinctive features as the indigenist symbols of independence called the caboclos and the massive procession into the city that re-enacts the patriots’ victorious entry in 1823. Providing a social history of celebration, Kraay explains how Bahians of all classes, from slaves to mem- bers of the elite, placed their stamp on the festivities and claimed recognition and citizenship through participation. Analyzing debates published in news- papers – about appropriate forms of commemoration and the nature of Bahia’s relationship to Brazil – as well as theatrical and poetic representations of the festival, this volume unravels how Dois de Julho celebrations became so integral to Bahia’s self-representation and to its politics. The first history of this unique festival’s origins, Bahia’s Independence re- veals how enthusiastic celebrations allowed an active and engaged citizenry to express their identity as both Bahians and Brazilians and to seek to create the nation they desired. Hendrik Kraay is professor of history at the University of Calgary. Like England’s Arthur and France’s Charlemagne, the Cid is Spain’s national hero, and for centuries he has served as an ideal model of citizenship. All Spaniards are familiar with the story of the Cid and the multifarious ways in which he is visualized. From illuminations in medieval manuscripts to illustra- tions in twenty-first-century editions, depictions of the Cid vary widely, re- vealing just how much Spain’s national identity has transformed throughout the centuries. Uncovering the racial, gendered, and political impacts of one of Spain’s most legendary heroes, Illustrating“El Cid,” 1498 to Today traces the devel- opment of more than five centuries of illustrations and problematizes their re- ception and circulation in Spain and abroad. By documenting the evolution of visual representations of the Cid, their artists, and their targeted readerships, Lauren Beck also uncovers how his legend became a national projection of Spanish identity, one that was shaped by foreign hands and even manipulated into propaganda by the country’s most recent dictator, Francisco Franco. Through detailed analysis, Beck unsettles the presumption that chivalric masculinity dominated the Cid’s visualization, and points to how women were represented with increasing modesty as readerships became younger in modern times. An unprecedented exploration of Spanish visual history, Illustrating “El Cid,” 1498 to Today yields thought-provoking insights about the power- ful ways in which illustration shapes representations of gender, identity, and ethnicity. Lauren Beck is Canada Research Chair in Intercultural Encounter and professor of Hispanic studies at Mount Allison University. 4 4 M Q U P S P R I N G 2 0 1 9 H I S T O R Y • L AT I N A M E R I C A N S T U D I E S B O O K A N D P R I N T C U LT U R E • L I T E R AT U R E S P E C I F I C AT I O N S May 2019 -5,7a755pl7l5h,7s 4p-i-l£ bAU1 4p-i-l£ Dc1 kpsiaa 6o602 -5,7a755pl7l5h57l 4Ssaiaac bAU1 4Ssaiaac Dc1 k-niaa $.9ru n B - hh,66 s5 6u9r93 0g99T omot.oN.0 S P E C I F I C AT I O N S May 2019 -5,7a755pl7l5sn7a 4p-i-l£ bAU1 4phi-l£ Dc1 ksni-- 6o602 -5,7a755pl7l5sl7p 4Ssaiaac bAU1 4Ssaiaac Dc1 k-niaa $.9ru nisl B -isl psa66 lS 6u9r931 $9.9d2 30$rt98 0g99T omot.oN.0 Bahia’s Independence Popular Politics and Patriotic Festival in Salvador, Brazil, 1824–1900 hendrik kraay How the people of Salvador, Bahia, celebrated inde- pendence in their province, challenging dominant understandings of nineteenth-century Brazil. Illustrating El Cid, 1498 to Today lauren beck The first critical examination of a literary hero and complex historical figure through book illustration.